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Nov 12 '13
scimedonly:


MY PURIFIED BOTTLED WATER: Reverse Osmosis
Last night, I bought a bottled water from my school’s cafeteria. The ingredient section of the label reads: “Purified by Reverse Osmosis”. I returned to my dorm room wondering in my head what reverse osmosis meant. I did make a good guess but I wondered why reverse osmosis would be useful and why it is possible. 
So heres what I found out about reverse osmosis. 
Reverse Osmosis is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solvent (in this case, water) through a semi-permeable membrane which retains the contaminants on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. Like the name implies it is “Reverse” of the normal osmosis (movement of solvents from a low solute concentration to higher solute concentration). The pressure/ force applied has to exceed the osmotic pressure in order to move solvent from a region of high solute concentration to a region of low solute concentration through a semi-permeable membrane.
Apparently Reverse Osmosis is useful in so many different systems such as : Green houses, Hemodialysis, Kidney Dialysis, Ice-making,…and a lot more. Next time you’re holding a bottled water, I hope you value the reverse osmosis technique.

scimedonly:

MY PURIFIED BOTTLED WATER: Reverse Osmosis

Last night, I bought a bottled water from my school’s cafeteria. The ingredient section of the label reads: “Purified by Reverse Osmosis”. I returned to my dorm room wondering in my head what reverse osmosis meant. I did make a good guess but I wondered why reverse osmosis would be useful and why it is possible. 

So heres what I found out about reverse osmosis. 

Reverse Osmosis is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solvent (in this case, water) through a semi-permeable membrane which retains the contaminants on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. Like the name implies it is “Reverse” of the normal osmosis (movement of solvents from a low solute concentration to higher solute concentration). The pressure/ force applied has to exceed the osmotic pressure in order to move solvent from a region of high solute concentration to a region of low solute concentration through a semi-permeable membrane.

Apparently Reverse Osmosis is useful in so many different systems such as : Green houses, Hemodialysis, Kidney Dialysis, Ice-making,…and a lot more. Next time you’re holding a bottled water, I hope you value the reverse osmosis technique.
Nov 12 '13
uberentrepreneurs:

The 3D Printed Electric Motorcycle.
One Italian manufacturing company is using 3D printing techniques to create art, satellites and even an electric motorcycle. In Modena, the homeland of the Italian Motor Valley, the first Italian electric motorcycle Energica Ego has been created. It has been built with F1 technologies.
Using selective laser sintering technology and Windform, a polyamide-based material reinforced with carbon fibers, CRP Group is able to create fairings, headlight covers and motorcycle components apart from the mechanical and electrical parts. The Windform line is resistant to water, oils and stress, and this allows for the creation of highly-functional and beautifully finished parts suitable for multiple applications.
The laser selectively fuses powdered material by scanning cross-sections, generated from a 3D digital file’s description of the part, on to the surface of a powder bed. After each cross-section is scanned, the powder bed is lowered by one indexed layer thickness, then a new layer of material is applied on top, and the process is repeated until the part is completed. The 3D printed prototypes and functional parts were then metallized and painted.
Energica Ego is the first Italian electric motorcycle that recalls traditional endothermal motorcycles that can reach 240km/h and can ride up to 150 km. The batteries charge takes less than three hours with AC and a half an hour with DC. Energica Ego is also equipped with a KERS braking system that allows it to recover useful energy for use by the motorcycle like F1 cars. Several patents have been registered for this project which is unique in its class.
Finally, the CRP Group will bring to the market a version of the Energica Ego without fairing. This model is built with 3D printing and Windform materials. This prototype is in the study and research phase to check the design, the aerodynamic and the specifications, and will make its debut soon.
I’m sure Elon Musk will love it too.
Read More on 3ders.org

uberentrepreneurs:

The 3D Printed Electric Motorcycle.

One Italian manufacturing company is using 3D printing techniques to create art, satellites and even an electric motorcycle. In Modena, the homeland of the Italian Motor Valley, the first Italian electric motorcycle Energica Ego has been created. It has been built with F1 technologies.

Using selective laser sintering technology and Windform, a polyamide-based material reinforced with carbon fibers, CRP Group is able to create fairings, headlight covers and motorcycle components apart from the mechanical and electrical parts. The Windform line is resistant to water, oils and stress, and this allows for the creation of highly-functional and beautifully finished parts suitable for multiple applications.

The laser selectively fuses powdered material by scanning cross-sections, generated from a 3D digital file’s description of the part, on to the surface of a powder bed. After each cross-section is scanned, the powder bed is lowered by one indexed layer thickness, then a new layer of material is applied on top, and the process is repeated until the part is completed. The 3D printed prototypes and functional parts were then metallized and painted.

Energica Ego is the first Italian electric motorcycle that recalls traditional endothermal motorcycles that can reach 240km/h and can ride up to 150 km. The batteries charge takes less than three hours with AC and a half an hour with DC. Energica Ego is also equipped with a KERS braking system that allows it to recover useful energy for use by the motorcycle like F1 cars. Several patents have been registered for this project which is unique in its class.

Finally, the CRP Group will bring to the market a version of the Energica Ego without fairing. This model is built with 3D printing and Windform materials. This prototype is in the study and research phase to check the design, the aerodynamic and the specifications, and will make its debut soon.

I’m sure Elon Musk will love it too.

Read More on 3ders.org

Jun 22 '13
science-junkie:

Atlantic Ocean to Disappear in 200 Million Years?
A newly discovered crack in the Earth’s crust could pull North America and Europe together and cause the Atlantic Ocean to vanish in about 220 million years, scientists say.A new map of the seafloor off the coast of Iberia—the region of Europe that includes Portugal and Spain—has revealed what could be the birth of a new subduction zone.Subduction zones happen when tectonic plates—the large rock slabs that make up the Earth’s crust—crash into one another. The edge of the heavier plate slides, or subducts, below the lighter plate. It then melts back into the Earth’s mantle—the layer just below the crust.The discovery of this new subduction zone, published on June 6 in the journal Geology, could signal the start of an extended cycle that fuses continents together into a single landmass—or “supercontinent”—and closes our oceans.Read more

science-junkie:

Atlantic Ocean to Disappear in 200 Million Years?

A newly discovered crack in the Earth’s crust could pull North America and Europe together and cause the Atlantic Ocean to vanish in about 220 million years, scientists say.

A new map of the seafloor off the coast of Iberia—the region of Europe that includes Portugal and Spain—has revealed what could be the birth of a new subduction zone.

Subduction zones happen when tectonic plates—the large rock slabs that make up the Earth’s crust—crash into one another. The edge of the heavier plate slides, or subducts, below the lighter plate. It then melts back into the Earth’s mantle—the layer just below the crust.

The discovery of this new subduction zone, published on June 6 in the journal Geology, could signal the start of an extended cycle that fuses continents together into a single landmass—or “supercontinent”—and closes our oceans.

Read more

Jun 22 '13

Race and the public perception of anthropology

science-junkie:

By Francine Barone
Research Associate, University of Kent
Anthropologists have dedicated much time to deconstructing and denouncing racial myths (see, for example, the AAA’s statement on race from 1998) and, as a result, the idea that “race does not exist” has been as strongly absorbed into the anthropological canon as cultural relativism. More recently, collaboration between social and physical anthropologists reaffirms that race is “not an accurate or productive way to describe human biological variation” (Edgar and Hunley 2009: 2) while scientifically detailing the genetic evidence for actual human variation. Still, dismissing fixed racial categorization as biologically unsubstantiated has done little to eradicate the very real presence of race in everyday life. So what has all the effort we have spent in deconstructing race actually achieved?
Teaching race
In Race Reconciled?, Edgar and Hunley address one of the main concerns I will concentrate on here; namely, how preconceived notions of race present a challenge for educators:
Specialists in informal education talk about “naïve notions,” which, in the context of education in biological anthropology, are the ideas our students have when they walk in the doors of our classrooms. Often, these ideas are typological, even when they are not racist. Although we have now been teaching for generations that races do not exist, these naïve notions persist and they continue to have social and scientific consequences. This may be because we have failed to offer a clear and satisfactory explanation that meshes with students’ lived experience (2009: 3).
Is it possible that the idea that races do not exist is itself becoming a “naïve notion” within anthropology?

Read More

Jun 22 '13
mineralists:

Rhodochrosite on Quartz matrix with Fluorite and PyriteSweet Home Mine, Colorado

mineralists:

Rhodochrosite on Quartz matrix with Fluorite and Pyrite
Sweet Home Mine, Colorado

Jun 22 '13
science-junkie:

June 22, 1633

I, Galileo, son of the late Vincenzo Galilei, Florentine, aged seventy years, arraigned personally before this tribunal, and kneeling before you, Most Eminent and Reverend Lord Cardinals, Inquisitors-General against heretical depravity throughout the entire Christian commonwealth, having before my eyes and touching with my hands, the Holy Gospels, swear that I have always believed, do believe, and by God’s help will in  the future believe, all that is held, preached, and taught by the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. But whereas — after an injunction had been judicially intimated to me by this Holy Office, to the effect that I must altogether abandon the false opinion that the sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center of the world, and moves, and that I must not hold, defend, or teach in any way whatsoever, verbally or in writing, the said false doctrine, and after it had been notified to me that the said doctrine was contrary to Holy Scripture — I wrote and printed a book in which I discuss this new doctrine already condemned, and adduce arguments of great cogency in its favor, without presenting any solution of these, and for this reason I have been pronounced by the Holy Office to be vehemently suspected of heresy, that is to say, of having held and believed that the Sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center and moves: 
Therefore, desiring to remove from the minds of your Eminences, and of all faithful Christians, this vehement suspicion, justly conceived against me, with sincere heart and unfeigned faith I abjure, curse, and detest the aforesaid errors and heresies, and generally every other error, heresy,  and sect whatsoever contrary to the said Holy Church, and I swear that in the future I will never again say or assert, verbally or in writing, anything that might furnish occasion for a similar suspicion regarding me; but that should I know any heretic, or person suspected of heresy, I will denounce him to this Holy Office, or to the Inquisitor or Ordinary of the place where I may be. Further, I swear and promise to fulfill and observe in their integrity all penances that have been, or that shall be, imposed upon me by this Holy Office. And, in the event of my contravening, (which God forbid) any of these my promises and oaths, I submit myself to all the pains and penalties imposed and promulgated in the sacred canons and other constitutions, general and particular, against such delinquents. So help me God, and these His Holy Gospels, which I touch with my hands. 

I, the said Galileo Galilei, have abjured, sworn, promised, and bound myself as above; and in witness of the truth thereof I have with my own hand subscribed the present document of my abjuration, and recited it word for word at Rome, in the Convent of Minerva, this twenty-second day of June, 1633. 

I, Galileo Galilei, have abjured as above with my own hand.

science-junkie:

June 22, 1633

I, Galileo, son of the late Vincenzo Galilei, Florentine, aged seventy years, arraigned personally before this tribunal, and kneeling before you, Most Eminent and Reverend Lord Cardinals, Inquisitors-General against heretical depravity throughout the entire Christian commonwealth, having before my eyes and touching with my hands, the Holy Gospels, swear that I have always believed, do believe, and by God’s help will in  the future believe, all that is held, preached, and taught by the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. But whereas — after an injunction had been judicially intimated to me by this Holy Office, to the effect that I must altogether abandon the false opinion that the sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center of the world, and moves, and that I must not hold, defend, or teach in any way whatsoever, verbally or in writing, the said false doctrine, and after it had been notified to me that the said doctrine was contrary to Holy Scripture — I wrote and printed a book in which I discuss this new doctrine already condemned, and adduce arguments of great cogency in its favor, without presenting any solution of these, and for this reason I have been pronounced by the Holy Office to be vehemently suspected of heresy, that is to say, of having held and believed that the Sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center and moves: 

Therefore, desiring to remove from the minds of your Eminences, and of all faithful Christians, this vehement suspicion, justly conceived against me, with sincere heart and unfeigned faith I abjure, curse, and detest the aforesaid errors and heresies, and generally every other error, heresy,  and sect whatsoever contrary to the said Holy Church, and I swear that in the future I will never again say or assert, verbally or in writing, anything that might furnish occasion for a similar suspicion regarding me; but that should I know any heretic, or person suspected of heresy, I will denounce him to this Holy Office, or to the Inquisitor or Ordinary of the place where I may be. Further, I swear and promise to fulfill and observe in their integrity all penances that have been, or that shall be, imposed upon me by this Holy Office. And, in the event of my contravening, (which God forbid) any of these my promises and oaths, I submit myself to all the pains and penalties imposed and promulgated in the sacred canons and other constitutions, general and particular, against such delinquents. So help me God, and these His Holy Gospels, which I touch with my hands. 

I, the said Galileo Galilei, have abjured, sworn, promised, and bound myself as above; and in witness of the truth thereof I have with my own hand subscribed the present document of my abjuration, and recited it word for word at Rome, in the Convent of Minerva, this twenty-second day of June, 1633. 

I, Galileo Galilei, have abjured as above with my own hand.

Jun 22 '13
garden-of-vegan:

granola with raisins, cashews, banana, raspberries, and soy milk, coffee with soy

garden-of-vegan:

granola with raisins, cashews, banana, raspberries, and soy milk, coffee with soy

Jun 22 '13

science-junkie:

Herbal Earth

The title of a spectacular collection of vivid new views of the Earth’s vegetation captured over the past year by the Suomi NPP satellite.

May 11 '13
garden-of-vegan:

romaine lettuce, carrot, radish, broccoli, avocado, chickpeas, seasoned tofu (soy sauce, sriracha, and mustard), and roasted garlic hummus

garden-of-vegan:

romaine lettuce, carrot, radish, broccoli, avocado, chickpeas, seasoned tofu (soy sauce, sriracha, and mustard), and roasted garlic hummus

Apr 23 '13

(Source: thinksquad)